The national shipping industry has been hard hit by the COVID-19 outbreak, which has disrupted the flow of goods along shipping routes.In addition to shipping, the COVID-19 outbreak has also taken a toll on passenger ship operators, with a number of ports temporarily closing to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.State-owned shipping company PT Pelni has suffered a sharp decline in passenger numbers since the COVID-19 outbreak hit the country in early February, the company’s corporate secretary Yahya Kuncoro said in Jakarta on Saturday, adding that business had dropped off further after the government imposed social restrictions to curb the outbreak in March. He said that a number of the company’s passenger ships, such as the KM Dobonsolo, KM Ciremai, KM Nggapulu, KM Dempo, KM Sinabung and KM Leuser, could not operate optimally because many regional administrations had closed their ports to prevent the spread of the virus. Although the ships are still allowed to transport cargo, the closure of ports had severely hurt business, he added.Most ports in Papua, including in Jayapura, Timika, Agats, Merauke, Nabire, Biak, Serui, Sorong, Manokwari, Kaimana, Fakfak and Wasior, have been closed for passenger ships. Several other ports in Maluku, such as in Saumlaki, Namrole, Sanana and Dobo have also been also closed.Ports have also been closed in Batulicin and Bontang in East Kalimantan; Waingapu and Larantuk in East Nusa Tenggara; Blinyu and Tanjung Pandan in Bangka Belitung; Awerange and Bitung in Sulawesi and Letung Tarempa in Riau Islands.Meanwhile, chairwoman of the Indonesian National Shipowners Association (INSA) Carmelita Hartoto said on March 30 that the COVID-19 outbreak had not only had financial impacts on shipping companies but also affected their administrative and technical work. The volume of cargo exported and imported to and from China has declined by 14 to 18 percent. Shipments to other countries such as Singapore and South Korea have also declined, while domestic cargo shipments have dropped 5 to 10 percent, the association said.The clearance process at seaports is another challenge that has resulted in higher operational costs. The clearance process has been further complicated by additional procedures such as ship disinfection, ship crew health checks and travel history checks.“This has increased operational costs,” said Carmelita. Carmelita also reported that efforts to halt the spread of COVID-19 had also disrupted administrative work. With physical distancing and work-from-home policies in place, business players have found it difficult to carry out administrative work, such as acquiring ship certificate, because of staff shortages.On the technical side, Carmelita said ship owners also faced difficulties conducting maintenance because of the limited number of workers available.Topics :
Environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria are also included in the MAQS group’s processes.BNP Paribas said: “The creation of MAQS will help meet the growing needs of investors seeking innovative solutions in an environment of uncertainty and polarising demand between low-cost management such as indexed products, and high value-added products that encompass risk management, such as factor management and customised solutions.”BNY Mellon combines big three US boutiquesBNY Mellon Investment Management is combining its three largest US investment managers to create a single multi-asset manager.The multi-boutique manager is to combine Mellon Capital Management, Standish Mellon Asset Management and The Boston Company Asset Management.The combined business will have more than $560bn (€476bn) in assets under management. This would rank it in the top 40 of IPE’s Top 400 Asset Managers survey.The new business will be headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts and led by chairman and CEO Des Mac Intyre, currently CEO of US Asset Management at BNY Mellon IM.The combination of the three businesses is expected to be completed within 12 months. A unified brand is to be launched later in 2018.The individual companies’ processes and philosophies for their core strategies will remain substantially the same, but over time “will be enhanced via an optimised operational infrastructure and the addition of new analytical tools and research capabilities”.Chief investment officers will be appointed from each business to maintain continuity of the investment process across all strategies, BNY Mellon IM said.Industry open to second wave of disruptionThe asset management industry is vulnerable to a second wave of disruption from technology firms, after a weak response to the first – investor adoption of low-cost index funds – according to Moody’s Investors Services.Some market share had already been ceded to digital entrants, such as “robo-advisers”, and a template for digital disruption already existed in China, the rating agency argued in a report.Four years since being launched for the digital payment system of Alibaba, one of the world’s leading technology firms, Yu’e Bao had become the largest money market fund in the world, Moody’s said. The fund has roughly CNY1.4trn (€180bn) in assets, according to a recent Bloomberg report.“Though this growth has occurred in a digital payment-friendly country, it is likely to foreshadow events elsewhere,” said Stephen Tu, a Moody’s analyst and author of the report. “Large US technology firms are often cited as leading candidates to enter asset management. Amazon, Google, Apple and Facebook have an edge in distribution through their mindshare, lifeshare, datasets, advanced analytics and predictive modelling skills in combination with their ability to target users.”However, as the potential for growth within the asset management industry was much smaller than in other industries, large technology companies would see involvement as complementary to their main businesses, potentially facilitating the collection of even more detailed and differentiated consumer behaviour data and client retention.WisdomTree ramping up European ETP presenceNasdaq-listed exchange-traded product (ETP) provider WisdomTree is to acquire the European operations of ETF Securities, excluding the latter’s exchange-traded fund platform.The deal includes ETF Securities’ European exchange-traded commodity, currency and short-and-leveraged business. This covers $17.6bn of assets spread across 307 products.According to a statement, the acquisition would take WisdomTree’s assets to around $66bn, making it the ninth-largest ETP sponsor and largest global independent ETP provider, with significant presence in both Europe and the US, the two largest ETP markets.The sale is subject to regulatory approval and is anticipated to close towards the end of the first quarter of next year. It is a cash and shares acquisition that valued at $611m.Under the terms of the transaction, ETF Securities would become the largest shareholder in WisdomTree.Jonathan Steinberg, WisdomTree CEO and president, said: “The acquisition will immediately add scale, diversification and profitability to our business in Europe, the second largest ETF market in the world and a growing and strategically important region for us and the entire industry.”Mark Weeks, UK CEO of ETF Securities, said: “This transaction creates a leading independent global ETP provider which is well positioned to compete in the rapidly growing European ETP market.” BNP Paribas Asset Management is combining teams from three of its subsidiaries to create a Multi Asset, Quantitative and Solutions (MAQS) investment group.The move is part of the manager’s efforts to streamline its organisational structure and enhance its range of products. Earlier this year it combined investment teams in a new group for private debt and real assets.The MAQS group combines teams from THEAM, CamGestion and Multi-Asset Solutions. It will have more than €110bn of assets under management.In a statement, BNP Paribas said the group aims to combine quantitative expertise with fundamental research capabilities, with risk management at the core of the investment philosophy.
Dorothy C Svara, 94, of Aurora, Indiana, passed away Sunday September 1, 2019 at her home.She was born December 12, 1924 in Tuscaloosa, AL, daughter of the late Albert Whaley and Etta (Mitchick) WhaleyShe worked as the Children’s Librarian for Aurora Public Library, retiring after over 15 years of service.She was a long time member of St. Mary’s Catholic Church, Aurora, IN. Dorothy was very active in the church, especially when her children were young. She was on the collection counting committee at St. Mary’s, volunteered at St Vincent DePaul and was on the bereavement meal committee for the church.Dorothy enjoyed helping people and served with the DCH Women’s Auxiliary for several years, volunteering over 6000 hours by 2016. She also served on the Aurora Public Library Board, and was a member of Tri Kappa Sorority.Dorothy was an avid reader. She loved to spend time with her family.Dorothy is survived by her loving children, Charles Wm. (Misty) Svara of Greenwood, IN, Amy (Dan) Deamron of Taylors, SC, Julie (Roy) Wiseman of New Middletown, IN, Ellen (Eric) Koenig of Vevay, IN, Mary Svara of Aurora, IN, Jean (Michael) Brown of Burlington, KY; 15 grandchildren and 8 great grandchildren.She was preceded in death by father, Albert Whaley, mother, Etta Whaley, and husband, William D. Svara.Friends will be received Wednesday, September 4, 2019, 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm at the St. Mary’s Catholic Church, 203 Fourth Street, Aurora, Indiana.Mass of Christian Burials will be held at St. Mary’s Catholic Church, Thursday at 11:00 am with Fr. Ben Syberg officiating.Interment will follow in the River View Cemetery, Aurora, Indiana.Contributions may be made to the St. Mary’s Catholic School, or Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. If unable to attend services, please call the funeral home office at (812) 926-1450 and we will notify the family of your donation with a card.Visit: www.rullmans.com
(CMC) – Off-spinner Rahkeem Cornwall snatched a five-wicket haul and Test opener Rajendra Chandrika and wicketkeeper Jahmar Hamilton lashed their second half-centuries of the game, as West Indies A produced a telling performance to put Sri Lanka A on the ropes on the penultimate day of the second four-day ‘Test’ here yesterday.At the close, Sri Lanka A were struggling on 36 for two in pursuit of 481 for victory at the Pallekele International Cricket Stadium – still requiring an improbable 445 runs in today’s final day to win the contest.Earlier resuming on 128 for four, Sri Lanka were bundled out for 245 in their first innings as Cornwall ripped through the innings to finish with six for 91.Wicketkeeper Niroshan Dickwella top-scored with 88, captain Dimuth Karunaratne got 68 while Asela Gunaratne chipped in with a vital 46, but the hosts lost their last five wickets for just 25 runs in a swift collapse, about 25 minutes after lunch.Yet again, Cornwall spearheaded the Windies attack, taking four of the last five wickets to collect his second five-wicket haul following on from his eight-wicket innings haul in the opening ‘Test’ in Colombo.With a healthy first-innings lead of 264, West Indies A then raced to 216 for three declared, with Chandrika stroking 68 and Hamilton a whirlwind unbeaten 56 off just 30 deliveries.Captain Shamarh Brooks also gathered an up-tempo unbeaten 53 off 63 balls while Shimron Hetmyer chipped in with 28.Left-hander Kieran Powell fell cheaply for two with the score on four in the fourth over of the innings but three successive half-century partnerships put the visitors in command.The right-handed Chandrika put on 65 for the second wicket with Hetmyer who carved out five fours in a busy 37-ball knock before falling on the stroke of tea, lbw to leg-spinner Jeffrey Vandersay.After the break, Chandrika added a further 67 for the third wicket with Brooks, as West Indies A controlled the final session.All told, Chandrika struck five fours and a six off 110 deliveries while Brooks hammered three fours and two sixes in an enterprising knock.When Chandrika was lbw to teenage off-spinner Charith Asalanka, Brooks and Hamilton combined to plunder 80 off 51 balls in an unbroken fourth-wicket stand which stunned the hosts.Hamilton, who made 99 in the first innings, was the main aggressor, lashing five fours and four sixes.Left with 11 overs to negotiate, Sri Lanka A slumped to seven for two with seamers Delorn Johnson and Kemar Roach removing both openers cheaply.Avishka Fernando, on 18, and Roshen Silva, 11, then added 29 to prop up the innings.
Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error Roberts was less firm in saying right-hander Kenta Maeda and his 9.00 postseason ERA would start Game 5 Thursday in L.A.“I think, right now, that’s how we have it lined up — with Rich, Julio and Kenta,” Roberts said. “As this series moves on, you always have to be open to adjusting.”Adjusting? That is a diplomatic way of saying Maeda will be shoved aside if the Dodgers decide to start Kershaw on three days’ rest in Game 5, something that might become even more tempting if the Cubs win the next two games.According to Elias Sports, Kershaw is already the first pitcher to throw at least 19 1/3 innings over four (or more) postseason games in a 10-day span since another Dodgers’ superhero — Orel Hershiser in 1988.Kershaw has pitched in every Dodgers’ victory this postseason and the Dodgers have lost every game he watched as a spectator. Dodgers pitchers have recorded 183 outs in seven games this postseason. Kershaw or Kenley Jansen have recorded 80 of them. The rest of the pitching staff has a 5.24 ERA and 1.72 WHIP in the postseason. The Dodgers’ road to their first World Series since that 1988 season would look a lot easier if someone other than Kershaw and Jansen stepped up in the next three days.Hill was acquired to be that guy — Robin to Kershaw’s Batman, if you will. But so far, his postseason has consisted of 4 1/3 innings in a loss in Game 2 of the NLDS (sullied by a three-run home run served up to Jose Lobaton) and eight outs on short rest contributed to the ‘It-takes-a-village’ win in Game 5 at Washington.“I think if we look at it … it was 6 2/3 and 13 strikeouts, does that sound correct?” Hill said, off by only one-third of an inning. “If you look at that as far as if we want to talk numbers, to me that’s an indication of what is there, you know what I mean? That’s the ability and everything that’s been proven out over the last year and a half.”Roberts pulled Hill from a perfect game in Miami five weeks ago out of concern for his blister issues but he said Monday he believes that is “not a factor” anymore. The short hooks in the NLDS were all about the circumstances of postseason baseball, a driving force Hill recognizes.“In that Game 5 scenario, when I do look back at that, it was a win-or-go home situation,” Hill said. “Let’s say that it was a regular-season game through 2 2/3 with six strikeouts (and only one run allowed), you’re looking at continuing on in that game. “I mean, if you want to play it out and just do fantasy baseball … we could possibly be talking six, seven innings, 15, 16 strikeouts possibly. I mean, that’s not far to fathom, right? As far as if we look at a curve.”Numbers like that from a starting pitcher might actually be a fantasy of Roberts. Instead he got 82 starts of five innings or less from his staff during the regular season and made more pitching changes than any manager in major-league history. In the postseason, Roberts has shown an even quicker hook and continued willingness to think outside the conventional pitching box when it comes to collecting the 27 outs it takes to win a game.“I think that we’ve kind of shown throughout this season that there is really no one way to win a division, to win a series, to win a game,” Roberts said. “I understand it’s still the postseason. But I think for our guys it’s really we’re focused each day to win that baseball game and whatever way that game plays out, our guys are prepared to audible.“For me … is it ideal? Probably not. But that’s OK.” LOS ANGELES >> Rich Hill had just watched Clayton Kershaw go seven scoreless innings in Game 2 of the National League Championship Series at Wrigley Field … two days after closing out the Dodgers’ NL Division Series win in Washington … six days after starting Game 4 of the NLDS on short rest.“I told my wife after the game (in Chicago), ‘I think Clayton’s going to go back to the Bat Cave and we’re all going to hop on the plane and go back to L.A.,’” the Dodgers’ other left-hander said Monday back in L.A.The Dodgers will be without their superhero for at least … a couple days?Hill is scheduled to start Game 3 tonight at Dodger Stadium. Dodgers manager Dave Roberts confirmed rookie left-hander Julio Urias as his Game 4 starter on Wednesday. The 20-year-old Urias will become the youngest pitcher in major-league history to start a postseason game, beating Bret Saberhagen of the 1984 ALCS by almost three months.
Shrewsbury – On April 15, students of the Mastro Montessori Academy performed the opera “Harlequin” for an appreciative audience of family and friends.Performers ranged from 5 to 12 years old. The opera takes place during the Renaissance, and tells the story of a poor boy who, with the help of his friends, patches together an outfit to wear at Carnival.This performance honored music teacher, Lucy Milonas, in celebration of her 25 years of dedication and service to the children and family of the Mastro Montessori Community.
Bryce Winters scored a game high 16 points to spark the L.V. Rogers Bombers to a 44-30 West Kootenay Junior Girl’s Basketball victory over the visiting Grand Forks Wolves Monday at the LVR Hangar.The game was one of three contests during a three-game set between the two schools.Grand Forks defeated LVR 64-33 in Junior Boy’s action while the Wolves also took care of Trafalgar in Grade 8 Boy’s play.LVR outscored the Wolves 21-6 during the latter stretch of the game to claim the victory.Camryn Parnell added 12 points for the Bombers while Ohia Wintraub added six points. Tara Makorkoff had 14 points for the Wolves.In the Junior Boy’s contest, Grand Forks jumped to a 17-4 first quarter lead before coasting to the double digit win.Jairo Mangapot led LVR with 12 points while Thomas Baxter added eight.LVR Junior Boys finished third at the Stanley Humphries Rockers Tournament Saturday in Castlegar.The Bombers opened with an overtime win over Boundary Central of Midway before dropping a pair of games to Mount Sentinel Wildcats and host SHSS Rockers.Game stars for the Bombers were Ben Hradil-Kassecker, Mangapot and Max Spielmal.The Junior Bombers travel to Trail Friday to meet the Wolves again in the opener of the J. Lloyd Crowe Hawks tournament.
Rabin Catalan gets pummeled by his Thai foe Kritsada Kongsrichai at ONE: Warriors of the World at Impact Arena in Bangkok, Thailand. Photo from ONE Championship.BANGKOK — The Filipinos’ campaign at ONE: Warriors of the World started off on the wrong foot after Rabin Catalan lost to his Thai foe in the preliminary fights Saturday at Impact Arena here.The 31-year-old Catalan (4-4) got dominated by hometown bet Kritsada Kongsrichai (6-3) with the referee stopping the bout due to strikes at the 3:01 mark of the first round.ADVERTISEMENT The Ilonggo fighter, whose losing skid continued, was unable to match his Thai foe from the get-go as he found himself on the ground early as Kongsrichai pummelled him with elbows.Meanwhile, Yodsanan Sityodtong (4-1) floored Dodi Mardian (0-1) with a killer left straight to score the knockout victory at the 1:32 mark of the first round.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSRedemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie ThompsonSPORTSMayweather beats Pacquiao, Canelo for ‘Fighter of the Decade’SPORTSBrian Heruela arrival bolsters Phoenix backcourt, defenseChinese fighter Tang De Pan also preserved his immaculate record as he beat debuting Asraful Islam of Bangladesh via unanimous decision. Phivolcs records 2 ‘discrete weak ash explosions’ at Taal Volcano View comments Steam emission over Taal’s main crater ‘steady’ for past 24 hours LATEST STORIES Kiss-and-tell matinee idol’s conquests: True stories or tall tales? MOST READ Jo Koy: My brain always wants to think funny Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. It’s too early to present Duterte’s ‘legacy’ – Lacson Jake says relationship with Shaina ‘goes beyond physical attraction’ Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ‘a duplicitous move’ – Lacson ‘Bata’ Reyes handily beats Thai foe in SEA Games carom PLAY LIST 01:32‘Bata’ Reyes handily beats Thai foe in SEA Games carom02:02‘Bata’ Reyes bows to Vietnamese foe for another SEA Games bronze03:12Elephants in Thailand ‘broken’ for lucrative animal tourism02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Margot Robbie talks about filming ‘Bombshell’s’ disturbing sexual harassment scene Coco’s house rules on ‘Probinsyano’ set Ateneo’s road to UAAP title started in Baler training camp
Test your knowledge of Mark Hughes’ reign as QPR boss by seeing how many of these five questions you can answer correctly.[wp-simple-survey-7] 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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
It was a dark and stormy night on Wednesday, November 24, 1971. Thousands of air travelers throughout the Pacific Northwest were heading home for the Thanksgiving Holiday and all was routine until the news bulletin hit the airwaves like a bombshell. A Northwest Airlines Boeing 727 had been hijacked on a flight from Portland, Oregon to Seattle, Washington. A lone hijacker with a bomb in his briefcase demanded $200,000 and four parachutes in exchange for allowing all 36 passengers to leave the aircraft before it was flown to Mexico. The airplane sat sequestered on a distant ramp at Seattle-Tacoma Airport for nearly five hours surrounded by a veritable sea of law enforcement vehicles and personnel, plus ground support equipment and two fuel trucks pumping 36,000 pounds of JP-4 into the 727’s fuel tanks. So how did all this happen?On the afternoon of that Thanksgiving Eve, a mysterious middle-age man described as approximately six feet tall with dark hair and brown eyes, wearing a dark suit and carrying only a briefcase, walked up to the Northwest Airlines ticket counter at Portland International Airport and purchased a one-way ticket to Seattle on Flight 305. He paid the $20 fare in cash with a single $20 bill, proceeded to Gate 52, boarded the Boeing 727-100 and belted himself into seat 18E for the short 45-minute flight which departed on time at 2:50pm. The man used the name Dan Cooper to purchase his ticket – the name of a daring fictitious cartoon character of that time period. The last time Dan Cooper was ever seen alive was at 8:00pm that same evening, alone in the darkened rear cabin of the 727 preparing to bail out of the jetliner with two of the four parachutes and a canvas bag filled with 10,000 $20 bills.It was obvious from his conversations and explicit hand-written notes passed to the crewmembers that Mr. Cooper had a thorough knowledge of the Boeing 727. He requested a full load of fuel in Seattle to complete the clever reuse of making a flight to Mexico City, and even knew how long it would take to pump that much fuel into the tanks. Cooper requested the jet fly at 10,000 feet enabling the cabin to remain unpressurized and allow the opening of the rear airstair inflight. He asked for an initial flap setting of 15 degrees, then 30 degrees as well as having the landing gear remain extended inflight. This was to allow a safe bailout speed below the gear door limit on the 727-100, and thwart any attempts of alert-scrambled U.S. Air Force Convair F-106 Delta Darts from nearby McChord AFB to chase the errant airliner and track Cooper’s escape. (Two jets tried to remain three miles behind the 727, but never saw a thing.)He specifically demanded $200,000 in $20 bills to be placed in a canvas bag along with four non-military parachutes – two main backpacks and two smaller chest-pack reserve chutes. State Police, Northwest officials, and FBI personnel could only surmise that Cooper intended to take a hostage with him. Therefore anyone tampering with the chutes would be guilty of attempted murder of a hapless passenger or crewmember. When the flight crew informed Cooper that the 727 had a limited range of only 1,000 miles with gear and flaps extended, a mutually agreed-on fuel stop at Reno, Nevada was chosen. This was yet another clever reuse placing the route-of-flight on FAA Victor Airway 23 over an area midway between Seattle and Portland, using minimum enroute altitudes for terrain clearance, and ensuring a planned arrival over a predetermined point where perhaps assistance and a getaway vehicle lay waiting.It was also obvious that Cooper possessed either extensive paratrooper experience, or knowledge thereof. His estimated age would have placed him in the Korean War, or possibly as a paratroop instructor during the Vietnam War, and this is where an odd connection with the CIA first emerged. Night insertion airdrops from DC-4s and then 727s were routinely flown by that agency out of Takhli Air Base in Thailand during the conflict. By using an indicated airspeed of 160 knots with gear extended and flaps set at 30 degrees, agents could successfully jump from the aircraft rear stairs at an altitude of 10,000 feet. The stunning similarity in Cooper’s requested flight parameters – even using the cover of darkness to avoid detection – could not be ignored, and every crewmember of those Air America 727s was given a lie-detector test the very next day after the hijacking. All 15 crewmembers passed with flying colors, however, no pun intended.The JumpIt was apparent that Cooper knew what he was doing. The estimated wind chill factor at altitude that night was minus-50 degrees F, so how could he have survived in that temperature? During post-flight passenger interviews at SeaTac, a 20-year-old college student from the University of Oregon named Bill Mitchell reported seeing something rather unusual. Seated across the aisle from Cooper in seat 18A, Mitchell noticed what appeared to be thick cream-colored thermal underwear visible below the cuffs of Cooper’s trousers and overlapping his socks. The estimated ten-second free fall from 10,000 feet would have been survivable with the limited protection that underwear provided.Another issue was the physical risk to a jumper without heavy boots or a helmet landing with an extra 25 pounds of money strapped to his body. Upon examination of the remaining two parachutes after the jet landed in Reno, it was discovered that Cooper had ingeniously torn a length of parachute riser from one of the unused chutes to make a tether for securing the canvas money bag to his waist. Like tethered military survival kits used by military pilots ejecting from stricken aircraft, that heavy bag would have struck the ground seconds before Cooper did, providing ample warning of impact and time to execute the energy-absorbing PLF, or parachute landing fall.Why did Cooper ask for his ransom in $20 bills? Because cashiers do not check serial numbers on a $20 bill at a grocery or convenience store. All basic needs such as food, gas, clothing, and even medicine can be easily purchased with $20 bills. Another question is where the name D. B. Cooper originated. As mentioned, a Dan Cooper purchased the ticket, but when the FBI ran a search of people with former paratrooper experience living in the Portland or Seattle area with that last name, a D. B. Cooper indeed came up on the list. That individual was proven to be out of the state that fateful night, but a UPI reporter named Clyde Jabin called a local detective who informed him of the FBI checking out a D. B. Cooper. Jabin sent that information out on the wire service, and when it hit the local headlines the next morning, a legend was born.Northwest Flight 305 was operated with a six-year-old Boeing 727-100 registered as N467US, originating from Washington National Airport that morning and landing at Minneapolis-St. Paul. A fresh crew took the aircraft to Missoula, Montana and Spokane, Washington before landing in Portland for the final leg to Seattle. Captain William A. Scott was in command of the aircraft assisted by First Officer William J. Rataczak and Flight Engineer Harold E. Anderson. Flight Attendant Alice Hancock tended to First Class passengers, while Florence Schaffner and Tina Mucklow handled the main cabin. The entire cockpit crew flew the hijacked flight to Reno, but Hancock and Schaffner (who took the first cryptic bomb note from Cooper) deplaned with the 36 passengers released as promised when Cooper got his money and parachutes. Only Tina Mucklow remained in the cabin on that flight. She watched him calmly smoke a cigarette before the jump, and was the last person to ever see Cooper alive.Twenty minutes after departing Seattle, with the aircraft flying at 160 knots at 10,000 feet, trimmed and configured exactly as Cooper demanded, F/O Rataczak who was hand-flying the airplane, felt a subtle but unmistakable jolt as Cooper egressed the rear airstair which then bounced up and hit the fuselage due to air loads. The jetliner was somewhere over the small town of Ariel, Washington near the Washington-Oregon border, and Cooper simply vanished without a trace as the mystery began to unfold.The Rest of the StoryFollowing the hijacking, a massive three-week manhunt was mobilized that included state and local law enforcement, the Air Force, and more than 400 members of the Washington National Guard. Collectively, they covered every square inch of two large counties with a search so thorough that two missing bodies were discovered – a lost hiker and a murder victim, both of whom had been listed as missing persons for many years.Those bodies were just the first of many seemingly promising clues that led to dead ends for the FBI. Another was a large swatch of fabric found high up in a tree with a parachute strap lying nearby. It turned out that the material was from a weather balloon and the strap was identified as being part of a drag chute jettisoned from an F-4 Phantom jet fighter years earlier. With the exception of a small data plate ripped from the open airstair door of the 727 during the bail out, not one shred of physical evidence – or any sign of Cooper himself – was ever found.Then, on Sunday, February 10, 1980, the ultimate fake-out clue of this case took place on the banks of the Columbia River. The Ingram family was spending a holiday weekend in Vancouver, Washington, and was about to enjoy a picnic lunch on the river bank. Their eight-year-old son Brian stumbled upon several packs of wet, rotted, and decomposing $20 bills mired in the sand. Two-hundred and twenty $20 bills to be exact. Authorities were alerted and the FBI quickly matched all the serial numbers to the D. B. Cooper money. Finally, physical evidence of the hijacking had been located at last, although there were still 9,780 bills still missing.Immediate speculation swirled around three distinct possibilities. First was that the money had somehow ripped away from Cooper when his body hit the jet slipstream and then fluttered to earth. (How would three packets wind-up touching each other in the sand?) Second theory was that Cooper had landed safely and then planted the money as a decoy before making his getaway. Third was that Cooper died in the attempted bail out, or had been killed on landing, possibly even drowning in the river, and the money floated downstream by itself.None of those theories were valid, however. What happened was a result of the Columbia River serving as a major regional shipping channel that must be constantly dredged to maintain ships draft clearances. The sand in which the money was found had been dredged-up from the bottom of the river several months before Brian Ingram discovered the packets. It had taken eight years for that $4,400-worth of evidence to turn up, but no one will ever know the origins of its deceptive and circuitous journey.As might be expected, copy-cat hijackings began three months later, although none were successful. Two parajackers were quickly captured and eventually imprisoned, and one was ambushed and shot dead after he landed. In February 1972, a United 727 was taken over by a man named R. LaPoint in Denver, Colorado. The following April, Army veteran R. F. McCoy hijacked yet another United 727 in Provo, Utah. Finally, an M. J. Hanley jumped from an American Airlines 727 near Peru, Indiana in June.Following this last attempt, the rear stairs on all Boeing 727s, Douglas DC-9s, and Sud Caravelles flown in the U.S. were fitted with an ingenious spring-loaded weather vane-type device that remained open on the ground, but turned 90 degrees from air loads in flight, physically locking the door shut from the outside. This simple yet effective mechanism is still in use today. It is named, most appropriately, the Cooper Vane.